The video on the right provides a brief explanation of the procedure as well as video taken during spinal endoscopy procedures.

The images below show screen shots from the video monitor during spinal endoscopy procedures with the anatomy and pathology labeled.


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Adhesions: Fibrous bands of tissue that are clear to white in color depending on the thickness of the adhesion.

Blood Vessels: Blood vessels seen in the distended epidural space will be small arteries. The arteries appear as a thin red thread with a pale opaque insulation. Pusatile flow can be seen as the artery expands and contracts. Epidural veins are not usually seen because they collapse when the epidural space is dilated.

Dura Mater: Convex, tubular in appearance. Gray-white in color with blood vessels on the surface that looks like a road map.

Epidural Fat: The most abundant tissue seen, it appears as loose globular, and glistening. Yellow in color with small blood vessels over and through it.

Inflammation: Angry looking erythematous tissue. The blood vessels appear distended.

Ligamentum Flavum: In the dorsal spinal canal the arched roof of the canal will consist of the ligamentum flavum extending from lamina to lamina. Covering the lamina will be periosteum.

Nerve Root: Originating from the dura and extending laterally toward the neural foramen. Appears as a gray-white vessel with a single blood vessel running longitudinally down the center.

Scar: Dense fibrous tissue. Usually white in color and appears avascular.